Literary Fiction

A Deep Dive into the Neapolitan Novels by Elena Ferrante

Explore the captivating world of Ferrante’s Neapolitan Novels through this deep dive, filled with rich characters, vivid settings and fresh perspectives.

Last Updated on May 31, 2024 by BiblioLifestyle

The Neapolitan Novels by Elena Ferrante

Elena Ferrante’s Neapolitan Novels have become a cornerstone of contemporary literature, and I definitely consider them a classic. These books have captivated readers with their raw and intricate portrayal of friendship, identity, the struggles of womanhood, and societal transformation. The Neapolitan Novels are comprised of four books: My Brilliant Friend, The Story of a New Name, Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay, and The Story of the Lost Child. In this series, you can expect to find stories filled with rich, intricate characters and vivid descriptions of life growing up in post-war Naples. Because it’s one of my favorite series, and I just reread My Brilliant Friend for a book club discussion, I’ll be sharing a mini deep dive into the Neapolitan Novels. My goal is to unravel the layers of Ferrante’s masterful storytelling, offering you fresh perspectives and deeper understanding. So whether you’re new to the series or a devoted fan, this exploration promises to inspire and enrich your reading experience.

About The Neapolitan Novels

The Neapolitan Novels by Elena Ferrante are a compelling quartet that traces the intense and evolving friendship between two women, Elena and Lila, from their childhoods in a poor neighborhood in Naples through their adulthood. The series begins with My Brilliant Friend, where we witness the early days of their bond and their shared dreams of escaping their circumstances. The Story of a New Name delves into their adolescent struggles and the divergent paths their lives take, illustrating the complexities of their relationship. In Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay, the narrative explores the political and social upheavals of the 1960s and 70s, highlighting how these broader changes impact the protagonists’ lives. Finally, The Story of the Lost Child confronts the unresolved tensions and ultimate fate of Elena and Lila’s intertwined lives.

Each book is a testament to Ferrante’s ability to capture the intricate and often painful realities of life, offering insightful reflections on identity, ambition, love, and the bonds that both bind and liberate us. Prepare to embark on a journey that is as thought-provoking as it is breathtaking, setting the stage for our deeper exploration of each novel.

My Brilliant Friend

My Brilliant Friend: Neapolitan Novels Book 1


My Brilliant Friend introduces us to the vibrant and often harsh world of Naples in the 1950s. The story begins with a prologue set in the present day, where the protagonist, Elena Greco, receives a call informing her that her childhood friend, Lila Cerullo, has disappeared without a trace. Determined to document their shared history, Elena recounts how their friendship began and evolved over the years.


My Brilliant Friend is set in a poor but lively neighborhood in Naples, where the struggles of daily life are palpable. The backdrop of post-war Italy, with its economic hardships and social upheavals, plays a crucial role in shaping the characters and their experiences.

Main Characters

  • Elena Greco: Also known as Lenù, Elena is the narrator of the series. She is intelligent, ambitious, and somewhat introverted. Her journey is one of self-discovery, heavily influenced by her friendship with Lila.
  • Lila Cerullo: Lila, or Raffaella, is fiercely intelligent, rebellious, and enigmatic. Her complex personality and unpredictable behavior make her a fascinating character who drives much of the narrative’s tension.

Key Themes

  • Friendship and Rivalry: The central focus of the novel is the intense and often complex friendship between Elena and Lila. While they share a strong bond, their relationship is also marked by jealousy, competition, and betrayal.
  • Gender Roles: Elena and Lila’s struggle against societal expectations for women in 1950s Naples is a recurring theme throughout the series. We see how these constraints shape their choices and relationships.
  • Identity: Through the characters’ experiences, Ferrante explores themes of self-discovery and identity formation, highlighting how environment, education, and personal drive can influence one’s sense of self.
  • Socioeconomic Struggles: The novel paints a vivid picture of the poverty and hardship faced by many in post-war Naples. It also delves into the complexities of social class and how it impacts relationships and opportunities.
  • The Power of Education: Despite their challenging circumstances, education becomes a beacon of hope for Elena and Lila. We see how it shapes their worldview and impacts their journey.

If you read My Brilliant Friend, which character resonated with you the most and why? Share your thoughts on in the comments below!

Get a copy of My Brilliant Friend by Elena Ferrante on Amazon or Bookshop.

The Story Of A New Name

The Story of a New Name: Neapolitan Novels Book 2


In The Story of a New Name, the narrative picks up where the first book left off, focusing on Lila’s tumultuous marriage to Stefano Carracci and Elena’s continued academic pursuits. The novel explores the complexities of adulthood, the challenges of marital life, and the pursuit of personal fulfillment.


The Story of a New Name expands beyond Naples, with the characters traveling to Pisa and Florence. The changing scenery reflects the characters’ growth and development.

Character Development

  • Lila Cerullo: Now married, Lila grapples with the constraints of her new life and her husband’s abusive nature. Her resilience and ingenuity are tested as she navigates these challenges.
  • Elena Greco: Elena’s academic journey takes her to Pisa, where she experiences life beyond Naples for the first time. Her exposure to new ideas and people broadens her horizons but also deepens her insecurities.

Plot Progression

The second book delves deeper into the character’s internal struggles and external conflicts. Lila’s dissatisfaction with her marriage and her affair with Nino Sarratore add layers of complexity to her character. Meanwhile, Elena’s academic success brings her both joy and alienation from her roots.

Key Themes

  • Marital Strife and Personal Freedom: Lila’s marriage to Stefano is marred by conflict and abuse, highlighting the limitations and hardships faced by women in oppressive relationships. Her quest for personal freedom and autonomy becomes a significant driving force in the narrative.
  • Education and Transformation: Elena’s academic journey symbolizes her path to self-transformation and autonomy. As she immerses herself in her studies, she encounters new perspectives and challenges that shape her identity and aspirations.
  • Class and Social Mobility: The contrast between Lila’s life within the constraints of marriage and Elena’s experiences at university underscores the broader themes of class and social mobility. The novel examines how social structures and opportunities—or the lack thereof—profoundly impact the characters’ lives and choices.
  • Friendship and Rivalry: The evolving dynamics of Lila and Elena’s friendship, marked by both deep affection and intense rivalry, continue to be a core theme. Their relationship mirrors their struggles with their own identities and the external pressures they face.
  • Identity and Self-Realization: Both protagonists grapple with understanding who they are versus who they want to be. Their journeys of self-realization are fraught with challenges, reflecting broader questions about identity, purpose, and fulfillment.

As you dive into The Story of a New Name, consider how these themes resonate with your own experiences. How do the characters’ struggles with societal expectations and personal desires reflect the broader human condition? Let’s discuss further in the comments below!

Get a copy of The Story of a New Name on Amazon or Bookshop.

Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay

Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay: Neapolitan Novels Book 3


As the series progresses into Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay, we see the characters grappling with the political and social changes of the 1970s. This novel delves into the themes of class, politics, and feminism, offering a rich tapestry of historical context and personal drama.


Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay immerses readers in 1970s Italy, contrasting the bustling, community-focused Naples with the intellectually vibrant and politically charged Florence. The settings reflect the characters’ physical and internal journeys, adding emotional and thematic depth to the narrative.

Character Development

  • Lila Cerullo: Now a successful business owner, Lila continues to struggle with the expectations of her gender and class. Her increasing involvement in political activism highlights her fierce determination and intellectual prowess.
  • Elena Greco: Elena’s personal and professional life takes off as she publishes her first novel. However, she is also forced to confront the challenges of motherhood and the repercussions of fame.

Plot Progression

The third book sees both protagonists taking bold steps towards independence. Lila’s growing involvement in political movements threatens her relationship with Stefano, while Elena’s literary success brings new opportunities but also puts a strain on her marriage.

Key Themes

  • Personal vs. Political Power: Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay explores how individuals navigate their personal lives within the wider context of political and societal power dynamics. Lila and Elena’s journeys serve as microcosms for larger issues of class, gender, and social change.
  • Feminism and Activism: This novel delves into the feminist movement in 1970s Italy and its impact on the characters. As Lila becomes more politically involved, she grapples with her own identity as a woman and her role in society.
  • Motherhood and Identity: Both Lila and Elena face challenges in balancing their roles as mothers with their personal aspirations. Their struggles highlight the complexities of motherhood and how it impacts women’s sense of self.
  • The Persistence of Class Divides: Despite their individual successes, both Lila and Elena remain deeply affected by the class structures of their society. The novel explores how these systems perpetuate inequality and shape individuals’ lives.
  • The Power of Friendship: Lila and Elena’s relationship continues to evolve, with moments of deep connection alongside periods of rivalry and distance. Through their enduring friendship, the novel examines themes of loyalty, support, and the impact of relationships on personal growth.

As we continue to follow Lila and Elena’s journeys in Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay, let’s reflect on these themes and how they relate to our own lives. How do societal expectations and power dynamics influence our identities? Can friendships withstand the challenges of personal growth? Share your thoughts in the comments below!

Get a copy of Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay on Amazon or Bookshop.

The Story of the Lost Child

The Story of the Lost Child: Neapolitan Novels Book 4


The final book, The Story of the Lost Child, brings the series to a poignant and powerful conclusion. Elena and Lila, now in their middle age, face new challenges as they come to terms with their past and the choices they’ve made.


The novel continues to explore Naples and its surrounding areas but also expands to include the characters’ travels to other parts of Italy. The changing settings reflect the characters’ evolving perspectives and demonstrate how their journeys have shaped them.

Character Development

  • Lila Cerullo: In this final installment, Lila’s tenacity and intelligence continue to shine as she navigates her tumultuous relationships with those around her. Her past decisions come back to haunt her, forcing her to confront difficult truths.
  • Elena Greco: As Elena reaches new heights in her career, she must also grapple with the aftermath of a personal tragedy. Through it all, she reflects on the impact of her friendship with Lila and how it has shaped her life.

Plot Progression

The final book ties together the loose ends of the previous novels as Elena and Lila’s friendship faces its biggest challenges yet. Secrets are revealed, relationships are tested, and the characters must confront their past in order to move forward.

Key Themes

  • Regret and Redemption: As we near the end of the series, both protagonists reflect on their choices and grapple with feelings of regret. The novel explores themes of redemption and second chances as they come to terms with their past actions.
  • Legacy and Identity: The Story of the Lost Child delves deeper into how our families and upbringing shape our identities. Through the characters’ struggles with parenthood, we see how familial legacies can impact our lives.
  • The Complexity of Female Relationships: The friendship between Lila and Elena continues to be a central theme, with its highs and lows providing insight into the depth and complexity of female relationships. Throughout the series, their bond is tested but ultimately remains unbreakable.
  • The Role of Memory: As the characters age, memory plays an increasingly important role. Through flashbacks and recollections, we see how memories can shape our perception of events and influence our present actions.

As we reach the end of this captivating series, let’s continue to discuss these themes and their relevance in our own lives. What lessons have you taken away from The Neapolitan Novels? What are your thoughts on the series’ conclusion? Share your interpretation of the ending in the comments!

Get a copy of The Story of the Lost Child on Amazon or Bookshop.

The Neapolitan Novels by Elena Ferrante

Why the Neapolitan Novels are a Must-Read

The Neapolitan Novels are celebrated for their cultural significance, intricate character development, and Ferrante’s evocative writing style. Here are a few reasons why this series is a must-read:

  • Insight into Italian Society: Through the eyes of Lila and Elena, we gain a unique perspective on the complexities of class, gender, and power dynamics in post-war Italy. The novels offer a deep dive into Italian society and its evolution over several decades.
  • Richly Developed Characters: Ferrante’s masterful characterization brings each character to life, making them feel like real people with complex motivations and flaws. The layered relationships between characters add depth to the story as we see how their actions impact one another.
  • Themes that Resonate: Despite being set in a specific time and place, the themes explored in the Neapolitan Novels are universal. From friendship and identity to societal norms and personal growth, readers from all backgrounds can find something relatable in these books.
  • Compelling Storytelling: Ferrante’s writing is both gripping and thought-provoking, effortlessly weaving together themes of love, loss, and resilience. Her vivid descriptions bring the characters and settings to life, making it hard to put the book down.

Whether you’re a fan of literary fiction or simply looking for a captivating read, the Neapolitan Novels are a must-read series that will leave a lasting impact. Dive into this richly layered world and join the millions of readers who have been swept away by Elena and Lila’s story. Share your favorite aspects of the Neapolitan Novels in the comments below!

Frequently Asked Questions about Neapolitan Novels

What is the story of the Neapolitan Novels?

The Neapolitan Novels by Elena Ferrante tell the compelling and intricate story of two friends, Elena and Lila, as they navigate the complexities of life from childhood through adulthood in turbulent post-war Italy. The series begins with My Brilliant Friend, where we are introduced to the vibrant yet challenging neighborhood of Naples, where the two girls grow up. As the narrative unfolds across the four books, we witness their evolving friendship, marked by passionate comradeship, fierce competition, and deep affection. Through their eyes, Ferrante explores significant themes like identity, power, socio-economic mobility, and the role of memory. Each novel builds layer upon layer, capturing the personal and societal struggles, triumphs, and intricate human connections that shape Elena and Lila’s lives. Their journey intertwines with the broader historical and social context of Italy, creating a vivid tapestry that draws readers into an immersive, emotional experience. The series culminates in The Story of the Lost Child, where the characters reflect on their tumultuous past and seek to understand the impact of their enduring yet complex bond.

Are the Neapolitan Novels based on a true story?

While the Neapolitan Novels have an almost autobiographical feel due to their emotional depth and detailed portrayal of relationships and societal dynamics, they are works of fiction. Elena Ferrante, the pseudonymous author, has crafted a world that feels incredibly authentic, with characters and events that resonate deeply with readers. The realism with which Ferrante writes has led many to speculate about the true-to-life inspirations behind her stories. However, she has clarified that while she draws on her own experiences and observations, the characters and plotlines are products of her imagination. This blend of authenticity and fiction is what gives the Neapolitan Novels their powerful impact and universal appeal.

Is The Lost Daughter part of the Neapolitan Novels?

No, The Lost Daughter is not part of the Neapolitan Novels. While it is also written by Elena Ferrante and shares her signature complexity and emotional depth, The Lost Daughter is a standalone novel. It explores different characters and themes, focusing on the experiences of Leda, a middle-aged woman reflecting on her life and motherhood during a solitary vacation. Though fans of the Neapolitan Novels may find similarities in Ferrante’s incisive examination of female identity and relationships, The Lost Daughter offers a distinct and captivating narrative separate from the interconnected lives of Elena and Lila.

What is the last book of the Neapolitan Novels?

The last book of the Neapolitan Novels is The Story of the Lost Child. This gripping conclusion to Elena Ferrante’s series continues to follow the lives of Elena and Lila as they navigate the challenges of adulthood, the complexities of their enduring friendship, and the evolving backdrop of Naples. The Story of the Lost Child delves deeper into the themes of identity, motherhood, success, and loss, bringing the journeys of these compelling characters to a poignant and satisfying close. Through Ferrante’s evocative prose and keen insight into human nature, readers are left with a profound understanding of the bonds that tie us together and the forces that shape our destinies. This final installment is a testament to the resilience of the human spirit and the enduring power of friendship, making it a must-read for anyone invested in the lives of Elena and Lila.

Should I read the Neapolitan Novels in order?

Absolutely, you should read the Neapolitan Novels in order! Starting with My Brilliant Friend, followed by The Story of a New Name, then Those Who Leave and Those Who Stay, and finally concluding with The Story of the Lost Child, these novels are intricately connected. Reading them sequentially allows you to fully appreciate the depth and evolution of Elena and Lila’s friendship alongside the richly detailed backdrop of post-war Italy. Each book builds on the previous one, weaving a complex tapestry of characters, relationships, and social dynamics. By following the intended order, you’ll be able to immerse yourself completely in the emotional and narrative journey Ferrante has crafted, ensuring a more profound and gratifying reading experience. Dive in and let the story unfold as Ferrante intended—it’s a literary journey you won’t want to miss!

Have you read any of the Neapolitan Novels?

What do you think about the Neapolitan Novels? Have you read any of them? Is My Brilliant Friend on your TBR? What novel was your favorite of the four? Let’s talk all about the Neapolitan Novels in the comments below.


All About The Neapolitan Novels by Elena Ferrante

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